All about the religious expeditions which changed the entire world despite being unsuccessful.

Crusades left deep marks on the culture and civilizations of many nations. Crusades were a series of religious military campaigns of Christians to take back the holy lands from Muslims. The holy lands are the areas of current Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. Ceasing the territorial evolution of Islam under Seljuk Turks was also a major motive. Before going into the details of the Crusades, it is necessary to understand the significance of the city of Jerusalem.

Importance of Jerusalem

Jerusalem has been the world’s most holy city for…


Throughout human history, many secretive and appalling orders have been terrorizing the common people for specific interests for example Black Hand Order, Teutonic Order, Illuminati, etc. The intelligence agencies of today are also considered fearsome and scary by the public. As there are many similarities between the medieval world and the world today, thus such frightful military orders were a major part of the medieval society as well.

The medieval Muslim World is known for the development of arts and sciences. Muslim empires of the Middle Ages were the hub of science, arts, and technology, and the entire world gained…


All About the Indo Pak Partition and the Migration of 1947

Background of Indo- Pak Independence

British entered the subcontinent in the 15 th century as traders. They established the East India Company to facilitate their trade in the subcontinent. At that time, the magnificent Mughal Empire (a Muslim Empire) was ruling India and the majority of the population was Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. After the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir, Mughal Empire started weakening due to internal and external issues. English men gradually started interfering in politics and later became the rulers of India after killing all the royal family and sending the…


By far now, the earth is the only planet where life is possible. Unfortunately, we are neglecting our responsibility to keep it clean so that we might be able to pass it to our next generation in a better condition. Land, water, and air have become global garbage cans. Recently, a virus has shaken the entire world. It has opened our eyes that we must save the natural resources of the earth. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. It spreads rapidly from one person…


Most of us find ourselves angry and frustrated at times. There can be many reasons behind it like our failures, bad relationships, issues at workplace or house and maybe a health or financial problems.

Healthy aggression is not bad for health. In some situations, it becomes necessary to vent out our anger. But be careful of unnecessary wrath that can do nothing but damage your internal peace and relationships with your family and friends. However, there are solutions which can be useful for us in all such conditions. …


All about the man who was a painter, sculptor, scientist, engineer, philosopher, and architect at the same time.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519 CE) was surely one of the most intellectual and influential figures of Europe in particular and the World in general. He was a genius scientist, an expert anatomist, a perfectionist military engineer, a keen painter, and a philosopher. However, he is mainly popular because of his paintings.

Early Life and Family Background

Leonardo da Vinci was born on 15 April 1452 in the region of Tuscany(Italy) where the Arno River flows __ near the town of Vinci. This area was part of the Florence Republic at that time. He was an illegitimate child of a famous lawyer__Piero da Vinci and a…


(Image source : Wikipedia)

Virgil is a short name of an ancient Roman poet and legend Publius Vergilius Marco(70 BC-19 BC). He was the most influential Latin poet of Augustun’s era. In fact, Latin literature is incomplete without “The Eclogues” , “The Georgics" and “The Aeneid” — three of Virgil’s most acclaimed poems still now. He was among the greatest poets of “The Golden Age of Latin Literature” along with Horace,Ovid,Livy,Cicero,Julius Caesar,Tibullus and Propertius. He was a friend of Horace and Augustus (Future Roman Emperor).

Childhood and Education

Virgil was born in a country side region of Gaul which was part of then…


Byzantine empire is another name of the Eastern Roman Empire.It was a part of the great Roman Empire until 390 AD which was founded by Augustus in 27 BC due to struggles of Julius Caesar. Due to internal and external crises, Roman Empire was first divided and finally it collapsed in 476 AD.Ostrogoths, Visigoths,Vandals and Franks captured Italy,Spain,North Africa and Gaul respectively.But it’s eastern provinces survived for next 1000 years as “Byzantine Empire.”

It was one of the most magnificent empires world has ever seen.Although it’s boundaries varied from time to time but it contained most areas of present day…


Spy fiction is the most popular genre of fiction prose because it is generally a complete package of suspense, action thrill, romance, and comedy. Along with it, these novels can increase our knowledge of history, geography, and politics. They make us a little bit secure minded which can sometimes be useful for us.

The first spy novel was perhaps “The Spy” (1821) written by James Fenimore. The internationally acclaimed spy fiction writer is John Le Carre, Robert Ludlum, Lauren Wilkinson, Tom Clancy, John Buchan, and Ian Fleming(famous for James Bond).

Urdu literature has also some glorious examples of spy fiction…


If today you know who you are? Where are you from? Who were your ancestors and what was your past? It's only because of the efforts of historians. A historian is a person who gathers information about the past and preserves that knowledge for upcoming generations.

As Theodore Roosevelt said: “The more you know about your past, the better prepared you are for the future.”

There is a very long list of historians like Livy, Herodotus, Tacitus, and Thucydides. But here we are listing only some great historians of the last century. …

Natasha Matloob

student,article writer.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store